T4 Syndrome

Let’s take a look at T4 syndrome. T4 syndrome, or more accurately “upper thoracic syndrome”, is a rare and perhaps under-recognized clinical entity. The most common cause of T4 syndrome is overuse injury and it usually seen in patients who perform excessive amounts of bending, lifting and twisting movements seen in sports such as gymnastics … Continue reading T4 Syndrome

Lower Core

Let’s take a look at core strength and stability for the pelvic girdle and low back. First of all – what is meant by your Core Musculature? Well, this largely depends on who you ask. As physical therapists, we mean the deep muscles that stabilise your body, and allow other, larger muscles to create movement … Continue reading Lower Core

Medical Imaging

First of all, I love a good X-ray or an MRI / CT scan. However, they are not always appropriate, and just like opioids, or statins, they have been overprescribed recently, and making the news. Medical imaging will show you the gross anatomy, and whether it is “normal” or “abnormal” or even “normally abnormal”. It … Continue reading Medical Imaging

Ice or Heat

Let’s take a look at the therapeutic use of ice and heat. As a rule of thumb, you should apply an ice pack as soon as possible after an injury; applying it for 10-15 minutes, and repeating after 60-90 minutes. Make sure that the ice pack is dry, and covered in a layer of material. … Continue reading Ice or Heat

Neck Pain

Let’s take a look at neck pain. Neck pain is common, but not normal. Causes include trauma, poor posture, muscle strain, bone abnormalities, and more, the vast majority are not serious. Diagnosing neck pain may require X-rays, MRIs, and other imaging tests, though often imaging may show abnormalities that aren’t causing any pain. Consequently, imaging … Continue reading Neck Pain

Achilles Tendinopathy

Let’s take a look at achilles tendinopathy. Achilles tendinopathy is a common overuse injury caused by repetitive energy storage and release with excessive compression. This can lead to a sudden injury, or in the worst case, can cause a rupture of the Achilles tendon. In both cases, a lack of flexibility or a stiff Achilles … Continue reading Achilles Tendinopathy

Facet Syndrome

Let’s take a look at facet syndrome. Facet syndrome is the irritation of the structures that form the facet joints – the small joints in the spine, which control movement. These can be irritated by pinching or stretching of the capsular ligaments which surround the joint, as a result of repeated micro-trauma, or as a … Continue reading Facet Syndrome

PatelloFemoral Pain Syndrome

Let’s take a look at patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS).AKA runners’ knee. PFPS is pain that originates between the kneecap and thighbone. The pain is felt at the front of the knee, either under or around the edges of the kneecap; it is typically more noticeable going up stairs or walking or jogging uphill. The root … Continue reading PatelloFemoral Pain Syndrome

Cervicogenic Headaches

Let’s take a look at cervicogenic headaches. Cervicogenic headaches are headaches caused by structures in the neck, typically the muscles and the facet joints of the spine; they have a habit of developing chronicity. Given the strong link between stress, the muscles of the neck, and headaches; many tension headaches are simultaneously cervicogenic. There is … Continue reading Cervicogenic Headaches